Control approaches for separated flows over aerodynamic (or bluff) bodies in which the separated flow domain scales with the characteristic length of the body are distinguished by the frequency band of the actuation input. In an approach that relies on the narrowband receptivity of the separating shear layer that is coupled to the wake (shedding) instability and scales with the characteristic advection time over the separated domain, aerodynamic performance is partially restored by a Coanda-like deflection of the forced separating shear layer toward the surface. Because the instability of the unforced shear layer may already be driven by global vortex shedding, the advection of the vortices of the forced (or controlled) layer along the surface and their ultimate shedding into the near wake can couple to wake instabilities and, therefore, may result in unsteady aerodynamic forces in the controlled flow. A different control strategy that emphasizes full or partial suppression of separation by fluidic modification of the apparent aerodynamic shape of the surface relies on controlled interaction between the actuator and the crossfiow on a scale that is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the relevant global length scales. A local displacement of the crossflow can alter the streamwise pressure gradient and, therefore, leads to complete or partial suppression of separation in which the actuation frequency is effectively decoupled from the global instabilities of the base flow.
AIAA Journal, Volume 43, Issue 7, July 2005.